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Natural Language Generation: Techniques and Applications

Natural Language Generation (NLG) is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence (AI) that generates coherent and contextually relevant text from structured data. It has many applications, from automated report writing and customer service responses to content creation and personalized messaging. This article delves into the techniques used in NLG and provides examples of their real-world applications.

Techniques in Natural Language Generation

Rule-Based Systems

Rule-based systems, also known as template-based systems, are the earliest form of NLG. They generate text by filling predefined templates with data. For example, a weather report might use a template like "The temperature in [City] is [Temperature]." The system would then fill in the city and temperature data to generate a sentence like "The temperature in New York is 20 degrees Celsius."

While rule-based systems are straightforward and easy to control, they lack flexibility. The generated text can be repetitive and may not sound natural, especially when dealing with complex sentences or large amounts of data.

Machine Learning-Based Systems

Machine learning-based systems, on the other hand, learn to generate text from large datasets. They use algorithms like Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and more recently, Transformer models like GPT-3 (Generative Pretrained Transformer 3).

These models can generate more natural-sounding text and handle complex sentence structures. For instance, GPT-3, developed by OpenAI, has demonstrated impressive capabilities in generating human-like text. It can write essays, answer questions, and even create poetry. However, these models require large amounts of data and computational resources, and their output can be unpredictable and difficult to control.

Real-World Applications of NLG

Automated Report Writing

Automated Insights, a company specializing in NLG, developed a platform called Wordsmith that generates written analytics. Wordsmith is used by the Associated Press to automate the generation of financial reports. By transforming structured financial data into narrative reports, Wordsmith has increased the AP's report volume from 300 to over 4,400 reports per quarter1.

Personalized Customer Communication

Another application of NLG is in personalized customer communication. Companies like Persado use NLG to create personalized marketing messages. By analyzing customer data, Persado's NLG platform can generate messages tailored to individual customer preferences, leading to increased engagement and conversion rates.

Challenges and Future Directions

Despite the impressive capabilities of NLG, there are still challenges to overcome. One of the main issues with machine learning-based systems is their unpredictability. These models can sometimes generate inappropriate or nonsensical text, which can be a significant problem in applications where accuracy and appropriateness are crucial.

Another challenge is the lack of transparency in machine learning models. It's often difficult to understand why these models generate the text they do, which can be problematic in applications where explainability is important.

Looking ahead, one of the key areas of focus in NLG research is improving the control and predictability of machine learning-based systems. Techniques like reinforcement learning and controllable text generation are being explored to address these issues.

Another future direction is the integration of NLG with other AI technologies to create more intelligent and interactive systems. For example, combining NLG with Natural Language Understanding (NLU) can enable systems to understand user inputs and generate appropriate responses, leading to more natural and engaging interaction.

More Examples of NLG in Action

News Generation

NLG is being used to automate news generation. For instance, Bloomberg uses an NLG system called Cyborg that can generate news stories about company earnings reports within minutes of the data being released.

Medical Reporting

In the medical field, NLG can help generate patient reports. Companies like Arria NLG have developed tools that can transform patient data into narrative reports, helping doctors understand patient conditions more quickly and easily


NLG is a rapidly evolving field with enormous potential. As the technology continues to advance, we can expect to see even more innovative applications that can transform industries and improve our daily lives. However, it's also crucial to address the challenges and ethical considerations associated with NLG to ensure that the technology is used responsibly and effectively.


  1. "Associated Press Expands Racing Coverage with Automated Insights' Wordsmith." Automated Insights.

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