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Natural Language Generation Algorithms

Updated: Jul 31, 2023

Natural Language Generation (NLG) algorithms are a type of artificial intelligence that convert structured data into readable text. These algorithms are commonly used in chatbots, report automation, and summarization tools. Advances in machine learning have resulted in the development of more advanced NLG algorithms that produce coherent and contextually relevant text. This blog post discusses the main approaches to NLG, their applications, and the challenges associated with developing NLG algorithms.

Approaches to Natural Language Generation

  1. Rule-Based NLG: Rule-based NLG algorithms rely on pre-established linguistic rules and templates to generate text. These algorithms require manual input from domain experts to define the rules and templates. Although rule-based NLG algorithms produce accurate and grammatically correct text, they lack flexibility and adaptability to different contexts.

  2. Statistical NLG: Statistical NLG algorithms use statistical models such as n-gram or hidden Markov models to predict the most probable sequence of words based on input data. While these algorithms can handle variability and uncertainty, they require significant amounts of training data to produce high-quality results.

  3. Neural NLG: Neural NLG algorithms leverage deep learning techniques such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and transformer models to generate text. These algorithms can learn complex linguistic patterns and produce fluent and contextually appropriate text. However, they require significant computational resources and can produce inconsistent outputs.

Applications of NLG Algorithms

  1. Automated Reporting: NLG algorithms can convert structured data into human-readable text, such as financial summaries or weather forecasts, to generate automated reports.

  2. Summarization: NLG algorithms can extract key information from large datasets or documents and produce concise summaries that are easy to understand.

  3. Conversational Agents: Chatbots and voice assistants use NLG algorithms to generate contextually relevant and coherent responses to user inputs.

Challenges and Future Trends

  1. Coherence and Consistency: Ensuring that generated text is coherent and consistent with input data and context is a significant challenge in NLG development.

  2. Handling Ambiguity: NLG algorithms must be able to handle ambiguous or incomplete input data and generate meaningful text that accurately reflects the intended meaning.

  3. Evaluation Metrics: Developing reliable evaluation metrics for NLG algorithms is critical, as the quality of generated text can be subjective and context-dependent.


Natural Language Generation algorithms have the potential to change the way we interact with and understand data. Advances in machine learning have resulted in more sophisticated NLG algorithms capable of producing fluent and contextually appropriate text. Overcoming the challenges in NLG development will result in more versatile applications in domains such as report automation, summarization, and conversational agents.


  1. Gatt, A., & Krahmer, E. (2018). Natural Language Generation: Core Tasks, Applications and Evaluation. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 61, 65-170.

  2. Hovy, E., Nenkova, A., & Tratz, S. (2020). Natural Language Generation in the Wild. Communications of the ACM, 63(11), 68-77.

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