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Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and Intelligent Tutoring Applications (ITAs) are computer-based programs that offer personalized instruction to learners. They use artificial intelligence techniques to build a learning environment that adapts to the learner's abilities and preferences. Both ITSs and ITAs create a model of the learner's knowledge, skills, and abilities to personalize instruction. They require a high level of domain expertise to understand the subject matter they teach. ITSs provide high levels of pedagogical support, while ITAs vary in this regard. Both systems offer assessment and feedback, essential for monitoring learner progress and adjusting their learning strategies. Interactivity is also crucial to keep learners engaged and motivated, and both systems aim to offer high levels of interactivity.

ITSs and ITAs are employed in various domains such as language learning, mathematics, and science. Some well-known examples include Carnegie Learning's math tutoring system and the Open Learning Initiative's (OLI) statistics course. In language learning, ITAs such as Rosetta Stone and Duolingo are popular.

ITSs and ITAs are effective tools for providing personalized instruction to learners. They help learners achieve their learning goals and create a learning environment that adapts to their needs and preferences.


  1. VanLehn, K. (2011). The relative effectiveness of human tutoring, intelligent tutoring systems, and other tutoring systems. Educational psychologist, 46(4), 197-221.

  2. Woolf, B. P. (2010). Building intelligent tutoring systems: An overview. In The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 453-472). Cambridge University Press.

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